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Bibliography expanded and updated to reflect recent research.

Updated on 02 Jan 2014. The previous version of this content can be found here.
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date: 23 February 2017

Abstract and Keywords

Ecological concepts and principles enable social workers to keep a simultaneous focus on people and their environments and their reciprocal relationships, not only in direct practice with individuals, families and groups, but also in influencing organizations and communities and in policy practice. Ecological concepts emphasize the reciprocity of person:environment exchanges, in which each shapes and influences the other over time. Ecological concepts are reviewed.

Keywords: People:Environment (P:E) fit, abuses of power, habitat and niche, life course (individual, historical, and social time), life stressor, stress and coping, resilience, deep ecology, ecofeminism

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