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Alcohol and Drug Problems: Law Enforcement and Legal Policy  

Anna Celeste Burke

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Historically, U.S. policy has been characterized by long-standing ambivalence evident in the changing emphasis placed on prohibition as the aim of drug policy, and in debate about the ... More

Capital Punishment  

Sondra J. Fogel, M. Dwayne Smith, and Beth Bjerregaard

Online publication date:
Nov 2013
Capital punishment, the administration of death as a legal sanction, is a criminal-justice response to a restricted class of criminal activities that involve the killing of another human ... More

Children and Armed Conflict  

Susan Mapp

The United Nations has defined six grave violations that occur in war that impact children: killing or maiming of children, recruitment or use of children as soldiers, sexual violence ... More

Client Violence  

Christina E. Newhill

Client violence and workplace safety are relevant issues for all social workers across practice settings. This entry addresses why and how social workers may be targets for a client's ... More

Community Violence  

Neil B. Guterman and Muhammad Haj-Yahia

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Community violence represents a widespread concern receiving increasing attention by social workers. This article considers the problem of community violence and our present understanding ... More

Confidentiality and Privileged Communication  

Carolyn I. Polowy, Sherri Morgan, W. Dwight Bailey, and Carol Gorenberg

Confidentiality of client communications is one of the ethical foundations of the social work profession and has become a legal obligation in most states. Many problems arise in the ... More

Crime and Criminal Behavior  

Margaret E. Severson

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
This entry includes contemporary definitions of crime, theoretical ideas about the etiology of criminal behavior, and information about the methods used to estimate crime rates in the ... More

Criminal Justice: Overview  

Rudolph Alexander Jr.

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
The criminal justice system traces its roots to ancient times. When the 13 original colonies were formed, they brought many of the laws and legal processes from England. Traditionally, the ... More

Criminal Justice: Criminal Courts  

Diane S. Young

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
This entry on the adult court system in the United States discusses the foundation, structure, and authority of courts at federal, state, and local levels. The role of criminal courts, the ... More

Criminal Justice: Corrections  

C. Aaron McNeece

The United States has more than 7 million adults under correctional supervision, with more than 2 million incarcerated. The history and theories behind incarceration are described, along ... More

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