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Larraine M. Edwards
Lillian Wald (1867–1940) was a pioneer in public health nursing. In 1893, she co-founded the Henry Street Settlement which provided professional nursing care to poor people at little or no cost. She is credited with the proposal that led to the establishment of the Children's Bureau in 1912.
Booker Taliaferro Washington (1856–1915) was an educator and proponent of industrial education for Blacks. He was known for his accommodationist approach to race relations in the segregated South. He was head of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute and founded the Negro Business League.
Forrester Blanchard Washington (1887–1963) was a social work educator. He was a strong proponent of the scientific method for professional training of social workers. He was an Urban League Fellow and director of the Atlanta University School of Social Work for 27 years.
Ann Weick was the dean of the School of Social Welfare, University of Kansas (1987–2006) and a principal developer of the underlying rationale for the strengths perspective in social work practice.
Hyman J. Weiner (1926–1980) was a program innovator, administrator, and educator. He was a pioneer in the conceptualization and implementation of group services in the health field. He also pioneered an Industrial Social Welfare Center and contributed to the building of industrial welfare curricula throughout the United States.
Sheldon R. Gelman
Celia B. Weisman (1918–2000), professor emerita at Yeshiva University’s Wurzweiler School of Social Work, was a pioneer in advocacy on behalf of the elderly both nationally and internationally.
Welfare as a right has long been an objective of advocates for social and economic justice. During the 1960s, the right to welfare was championed by legal scholars as well as the activists who created the National Welfare Rights Organization (NWRO). With the demise of NWRO in 1975 and the subsequent ascendance of conservatism in social policy, notably the 1996 welfare reform act, momentum for welfare as a right flagged. Since the 1990s, a capability approach to well-being has been proposed, and various instruments have been constructed to evaluate the welfare of populations across nations as well as subnational jurisdictions. Variables such as income, health, education, employment, and satisfaction measures of well-being have effectively replaced the idea of welfare as a right. The transition from welfare as a right to well-being varying across populations provides more information social workers can use to advocate for marginalized populations.
Ida Bell Wells-Barnett (1862–1931) was a journalist, civil rights spokeswoman, and civic organizer. She wrote and lectured about the plight of Blacks in the South, especially lynching. She founded the Alpha Suffrage Club of Chicago, the first Black women's organization of its kind.
Eartha Mary Magdalene White (1876–1974) was a civic-minded Black businesswoman. She organized health and welfare services for the Black community in Jacksonville, Florida. She founded the Clara White Mission for the homeless and later founded the Eartha M. M. White Nursing Home.
Kathryn P. Alessandria
Research on White ethnics is lacking in the diversity literature; when included, they are used as the comparison for other ethnic groups. Diversity exists among White ethnics; consequences of ignoring these differences include culturally insensitive and inappropriate treatment, misunderstanding clients, and poor therapeutic alliances. The heterogeneity within the White ethnic population and strategies for gaining cultural information and demonstrating cross-cultural effectiveness are discussed.