Peter A. Newman
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is the most deadly epidemic of modern times. Since HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), the virus that causes AIDS, was first identified in the United States in 1981, nearly 1 million Americans have been diagnosed with AIDS and 530,756 have died. Forty million people are living with HIV worldwide. Although AIDS is still a fatal disease, new drug therapies have greatly slowed the course of disease progression and enhanced quality of life for persons living with HIV. Nevertheless, monumental disparities persist within the United States and between the developed and developing worlds in this two-tiered epidemic.
Kosta N. Kalogerogiannis, Richard Hibbert, Lydia M. Franco, Taiwanna Messam, and Mary M. McKay
For over 20 years, social workers have been involved in service delivery for HIV and AIDS infected and affected individuals. It is estimated that more than 1 million people are living with HIV or AIDS in the United States. The rates of HIV infections continue to rise, with more than 40,000 individuals being diagnosed each year in the United States. This entry explores the current trends in HIV primary prevention, secondary prevention, and counseling and psychotherapy services for people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS.
Home health care is professional medical and non-medical care delivered in the home (home refers to a private residence, an assisted living facility, or a group home) to assist ill, injured, or disabled seniors or adults remain safely at home for as long as possible. As the population ages, and the numbers of Baby Boomers age 85 and older increases, it is likely that there will be a growing need for long-term care, including home health care. In this article, the role of social work in home health care is reviewed as it is impacted by sources of payment and demographic characteristics of home care users. Social work assessment and intervention in home health care is also discussed with a focus on effective referral practices.
Mary Raymer and Dona J. Reese
Hospice social workers are essential members of the interdisciplinary team that provide biopsychosocial and spiritual care to terminally ill patients and their significant others during the last 6 months of life. Hospice philosophy emphasizes symptom control, quality of life, patient self-determination, and death with dignity. Hospice social workers must be skilled in providing evidence-based interventions including direct client services; collaboration with the interdisciplinary team; community outreach; developing culturally competent services; and advocating for policy change on the organizational, local, and national levels.
Toba Schwaber Kerson
Health is a need, a basic requirement for life. Needs can become rights when bodies of people, usually governments or organizations such as the World Health Organization sanction them. While many have declared health as a right, the greatest burden of illness continues to be carried by minority and medically underserved populations. Also, industrialization, urbanization, economic development, and food market globalization have brought with them the poor health habits that place people at risk for cardiovascular and other diseases. Improved health habits and universal health care coverage would help to address the health needs of all.
Judith G. Gonyea
As a result of rising life expectancies, America’s older population is itself aging. The U.S. Census Bureau projections suggest that by the middle of the 21st century, more than 40% of Americans aged 65 and older can expect to live to at least the age of 90. Although the oldest-old is a diverse population, advanced old age is associated with a greater risk of experiencing economic hardship, disabling illnesses or health conditions, and social isolation. A growing public policy challenge will be ensuring the economic well-being, the health, and the dignity of society’s very oldest citizens.
Vikki L. Vandiver
Since the mid-1980s, managed care has been one approach used to address the economic crisis in the American health-care system. This entry overviews managed care from the perspective of policy, procedure, practice, and system. Specifically, emphasis is given to understanding the emergence and history of managed care, multiple definitions, how it works, and examples of managed care plans, key legislation, existing research, its future, and implications for social-work practitioners.
Valire Carr Copeland and Daniel Hyung Jik Lee
Social reform efforts of the settlement-house movement have provided, in part, the foundation for today’s Maternal and Child Health Bureau’s policies, programs, and services. Planning, implementing, and evaluating policies and programs that affect the health and well-being of mothers and children require a multidisciplinary approach. Social workers, whose skills encompass direct services, advocacy, planning and research, community development, and administration, have a critical role to play in improving the health outcomes of maternal and child populations.
Victoria M. Rizzo
In 1965, Titles XVIII and XIX of the Social Security Act were passed creating Medicare and Medicaid and laying the foundation for U.S. health policy. Medicare was originally created to meet the specific medical needs of the elderly. Currently, however, individuals with end stage renal disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and other disabilities may also receive Medicare. Medicaid was established to provide a basic level of medical care to specific categories of people who are poor, including pregnant women, children, and the aged. This entry includes a brief explanation of Medicaid and Medicare and a discussion of current legislative issues.
Charles L. Robbins
The distribution of illness and its impact are not random occurrences. Social workers can prevent illness through education and behavioral change as well as mitigate its impact once it does occur, and social workers should be knowledgeable about illness and the health status of the people with whom they work. As advocates for our clients, it is important that we pursue policies and programs that address the inadequacies and injustices in health care. To accomplish this, we must be prepared with the necessary knowledge.