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Medicaid and Medicare  

Victoria M. Rizzo

In 1965, Titles XVIII and XIX of the Social Security Act were passed creating Medicare and Medicaid and laying the foundation for U.S. health policy. Medicare was originally created to ... More

Mentoring and Coaching  

Fariyal Ross-Sheriff and Julie Orme

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
This article provides a synopsis of mentoring and coaching, with a focus on the importance of mentoring in academia. Although there are considerable differences between mentoring and ... More

Organizational Change in Human Service Organizations  

Thomas Packard

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
This article presents an overview of the field of organizational change as it applies to human service organizations (HSOs). It offers definitions, conceptual models, and perspectives for ... More

Organizational Learning  

Yekutiel Sabah and Patricia Cook-Craig

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
The professional commitment of practitioners in a changing society requires them to continuously acquire new professional knowledge. Since robust and relevant knowledge is often in short ... More

Organizations and Associations  

Bradford W. Sheafor

In U.S. society, individuals are designated “professional” when they meet the requirements for a profession. However, professions are developed and maintained through various professional ... More

Organizations and Governance  

Tom Holland

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Most social service organizations are identified by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service as nonprofits, designated as 501c3 organizations. They are overseen by governing boards, which ensure ... More

Outcome Measures in Human Services  

Jennifer L. Magnabosco

Throughout history, measuring outcomes has been a goal and priority in the human services. This entry chronicles the history of outcomes measurement in the human services in the United ... More

Privatization  

Andrew Dobelstein

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Privatizing social services has taken a new turn as America enters the 21st century. Although it was once possible to separate private and public social services, the growing trend toward ... More

Privilege  

Cheryl L. Franks and Marion Riedel

Privilege is the invisible advantage and resultant unearned benefits afforded to dominant groups of people because of a variety of sociodemographic traits. Privilege provides economic and ... More

Program Evaluation  

Richard M. Grinnell Jr., Yvonne A. Unrau, and Peter Gabor

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
This entry discusses how four types of program evaluations can be used in social service programs: (a) needs assessments, (b) process evaluations, (c) outcome evaluations, and (d) ... More

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