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Female Genital Mutilation  

Fariyal Ross-Sheriff and Evalyne Kerubo Orwenyo

Online publication date:
Aug 2014
Female genital mutilation (FGM) has been portrayed in the literature as an inhumane practice and a form of human rights abuse. Young women and girls who undergo FGM are subjected to the ... More

Global Gender Inequality  

Melissa B. Littlefield, Denise McLane-Davison, and Halaevalu F. O. Vakalahi

Online publication date:
Feb 2015
Mechanisms of oppression that serve to subordinate the strengths, knowledge, experiences, and needs of women in families, communities, and societies to those of men are at the root of ... More

Human Trafficking: Sex Trade  

Kathleen Bergquist

The definition of human trafficking generally includes the commercial exploitation of persons for labor or sex. Although the International Labour Organization estimated in 2012 that ... More

Multiculturalism  

Eun-Kyoung Othelia Lee and Ruth McRoy

This entry defines the concept of multiculturalism and explains, from a historical and contemporary perspective, its evolution and significance in social work. The relationship between ... More

Sex Workers and HIV/AIDS in India  

Sunny Sinha

The risk of HIV infection looms large among male, female, and transgender sex workers in India. Several individual, sociocultural, and structural-environmental factors enhance the risk of ... More

Torture  

S. Megan Berthold

Although state-sponsored torture violates human rights and international law, it is a widespread practice worldwide. The effects are profound and extend beyond the targeted individual. ... More

Women, Development, and Gender Inequality  

Lena Dominelli

Women have a lengthy history of fighting their oppression as women and the inequalities associated with this to claim their place on the world stage, in their countries, and within their ... More

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