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African American Social Welfare History  

Iris Carlton-LaNey

This article discusses the African American social welfare system that began to develop during the early 20th century. This social welfare system, designed by African Americans to serve ... More

African Americans: Overview  

Larry E. Davis, John M. Wallace Jr., and Trina R. Williams Shanks

African Americans have been a part of the nation's history for nearly four hundred years. Although their history includes the forced imposition of chattel slavery, the strict enforcement ... More

Disparities and Inequalities  

King Davis and Hyejin Jung

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
This entry defines the term disparity as measurable differences between groups on a number of indices. The term disparity originated in France in the 16th century and has been used as a ... More

Disproportionality and Disparities  

Rowena Fong, Ruth McRoy, and Alan Dettlaff

Online publication date:
Jun 2014
Racial disproportionality and disparities are problems affecting children and families of color in the child welfare, juvenile justice, education, mental-health, and health-care systems. ... More

Economic Justice  

Louise Simmons

Social work often refers to economic justice but rarely considers what economic justice truly entails. This article specifies a number of areas that comprise economic justice issues and ... More

Employment and Unemployment  

Michelle Livermore

Print publication date:
Apr 2008
Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Different types of employment and unemployment are defined and the measurement of these concepts is illustrated. Unemployment trends among different groups in the United States are ... More

Housing  

Tracy M. Soska

Housing, especially homeownership and affordable housing, remains essential to the American Dream but also among our most challenging social issues, particularly given the collapse of the ... More

Hunger, Nutrition, and Food Programs  

Kristine Siefert

Food insecurity and hunger are serious problems around the world, with an estimated 870 million people chronically undernourished. The vast majority of these people—an estimated 14.9%—live ... More

Incarcerated Women  

Patricia O’Brien

This article summarizes the incidence of women in the United States who have been sentenced to prison as a consequence of a felony conviction for violation of state or federal laws. It ... More

Income Distribution  

Joel Blau

Print publication date:
Apr 2008
Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Income distribution is defined as both the process of distributing income to individuals and families and as the statistical consequences of that distribution. After examining the ... More

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