Toba Schwaber Kerson and Jessica Euna Lee
Within its 150-year history, public health has grown from a focus on local communities to include countrywide, then international, and now global perspectives. Using the United Nations’ Millennium Goals as its primary framework, this entry provides an overview of global public health within the broadest possible context of the world and all of its peoples. Also provided are the global burden of disease as measured in disability-adjusted life years, global health statistics, current health priorities, and recommendations for action by social workers and other health professionals.
QingYing Ji and Anao Zhang
This article offers an overview of medical social work development in Shanghai, China. The Chinese definition of medical social work is introduced, and its development in Shanghai is described. Both from a history and policy perspective, this article outlines the three stages of medical social work development in Shanghai chronologically while introducing relevant national policies for medical social work at each stage. Lessons learned from the past are summarized and reviewed. Finally, future directions for further development are discussed.
Betty J. Ruth, Sarah Sisco, and Jamie Wyatt Marshall
Public health social work is a subdiscipline within social work that uses multifaceted transdisciplinary approaches to promote health equity and mitigate human health problems. Originating in the early 20th century, public health social work applies social work and public health theories, frameworks, research, and collaborative practice to address contemporary health issues. Epidemiologically informed and characterized by prevention, health promotion, and other integrative practices, public health social work is highly relevant to pervasive 21st-century challenges, such as health inequity, behavioral health integration, chronic disease, health reform implementation, and global health. With its strong focus on health impact and population health, public health social work is central to the profession’s viability and success in the post–Affordable Care Act (ACA) health environment.
The risk of HIV infection looms large among male, female, and transgender sex workers in India. Several individual, sociocultural, and structural-environmental factors enhance the risk of HIV infection among sex workers by restricting their ability to engage in safer sexual practices with clients and/or intimate partners. While most HIV prevention programs and research focus on visible groups of women sex workers operating from brothels (Pardasani, 2005) and traditional sex workers, for example, Devadasis (Orchard, 2007); there is a whole subgroup of the sex worker population that remains invisible within HIV prevention programs, such as the male, female, and transgender sex workers operating from non-brothel-based settings. This paper provides an overview of the different types and contexts of sex work prevalent in Indian society, discusses the factors that increase a sex worker’s risk of HIV infection, describes the varied approaches to HIV prevention adopted by the existing HIV prevention programs for sex workers, discusses the limitations of the HIV prevention programs, and concludes with implications for social work practice and education.